Today with a RESTful architecture becoming more and more standard it might be worthwhile to spend some time rethinking your current security approaches. Within this small series of blog posts we'll explore a few relatively new ways of solving web related security issues in a Stateless way.
CSRF attacks are based on lingering authentication cookies. After being logged in or otherwise identified as a unique visitor on a site, that site is likely to leave a cookie within the browser. Without explicitly logging out or otherwise removing this cookie, it is likely to remain valid for some time.
Another site can abuse this by having the browser make Cross-Site requests to the site under attack. As probably clear from the example above, the harm is already be done if the requested URL triggers any side-effects state changes in the background. The commonly used solution would be to introduce the requirement of a so-called shared secret "CSRF-token" and make it known to the client as part of a previous response.
The client is then required to ping it back to the server for any requests with side-effects. This can be done either directly within a form as hidden field or as a custom HTTP header. Either way other sites cannot successfully produce requests with the correct CSRF-token included, because SOP prevents responses from the server from being read cross-site. The issue with this approach is that the server needs to remember the value of each CSRF-token for each user inside a session.
Indeed no JSON! This header is used by browsers to designate which exact page url triggered a request. This could easily be used to check against the expected domain for the site. Note that if opting for such a check you should never allow requests without the header present. Have the clients generate and send the same unique secret value in both a Cookie and a custom HTTP header. Using this approach all your server has to do is check if both values are equal, on a stateless per request basis!Cross-site request forgery - How csrf Token Works
Within Spring Boot you get some nice default security settings which you can fine tune using your own configuration adapter. As expected the Stateless version doesn't do much more than a simple equals on both header values. Client-side implementation is trivial as well, especially when using AngularJS. If you tell it what cookie to read from, it will automatically put and send its value into a custom header of your choosing.
The browser taking care of sending the cookie header itself.Comment In this example, we will be making use of hard-coded user values for user authentication. The Maven project will look as follows:. Define the application. The secret key is combined with the header and the payload to create a unique hash. We are only able to verify this hash if you have the secret key. It makes use of the io.
Jwts for achieving this. Using the Spring Authentication Manager, we authenticate the username and password. This class is required for storing the username and password we received from the client.
This class is required for creating a response containing the JWT to be returned to the user. It checks if the request has a valid JWT token. If it has a valid JWT Token, then it sets the authentication in context to specify that the current user is authenticated.
It rejects every unauthenticated request and sends error code The body should have a valid username and password. In our case, the username is javainuse and the password is password. And there you have it! Published at DZone with permission of Rida Shaikh. See the original article here. Over a million developers have joined DZone. Let's be friends:. DZone 's Guide to. Free Resource. Like Join the DZone community and get the full member experience. Join For Free.
RequestMapping; import org. SpringApplication; import org. Serializable; import java. Date; import java.JWTs are frequently used in OAuth2 as access and refresh tokens as well as a variety of other applications.
The code that backs this post can be found on GitHub. CSRF Cross Site Request Forgery is a technique in which an attacker attempts to trick you into performing an action using an existing session of a different website.
Spring Security when combined with Thymeleaf templatesautomatically inserts a token into all web forms as a hidden field.
This token must be present on form submission, or a Java Exception is thrown.
Subscribe to RSS
This mitigates the risk of CSRF as an external site an attacker would not be able to reproduce this token. Notice the xmlns:th attribute in the html tag as well as th:action attribute of the form tag. When the form is submitted, it compares the value of the token to what Spring Security has on record. If the token is not present or is not the right value, an Exception is thrown. We add three components to make this happen:. Here we see the JJWT fluent interface in action.
We chain all the claims settings together and call the compact terminator method to give us the final JWT string. Most importantly, this JWT will expire after 30 seconds. The saveToken and loadToken methods do just what they say. In addition, we want to leverage the the information encoded in the JWT. This is implemented as a filter.
Spring Boot 2.X practice -- Spring Security (Token) login and registration
If the JWT is parseable, processing will continue. As you can see in the catch block, if parsing the JWT fails for any reason, we forward the request to an error page. To run the sample app, clone the GitHub repo and execute:. You will see a humble button:. NOTE: When you view source, it will invalidate the token in the page since a new one is fetched to show source. Just refresh the original page. JWTs are very powerful for general token use due to their inherent smarts — the encoded claims within them as well as their ability to be cryptographically verified.
Have questions or feedback? Leave a comment or hit me up on Twitter afitnerd! HS, secret. HSsecret. Here, we'll make sure it's not expired. Search for. Explore the Topic. Share a Post 0.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Have a question about this project? Sign up for a free GitHub account to open an issue and contact its maintainers and the community.
Already on GitHub? Sign in to your account. How do I add the CSRF token to the socket connection so that it is sent over in the handshake headers the same way that it is sent over in the an http call. Please enable debug by setting the following in the configuration and attach your console output please.
I actually need to rephrase this question. I need to add the CSRF to a "publish", not a "watch". So the publish looks like so:. But what the backend seems to be reading in Spring Security is a null value. Which tells me that it is not reading the CSRF in the header or as a parameter at all. I have tried setting the CSRF token in the headers by deactivating the connection, then resetting the configuration and then reconnecting, but ng2-stomp seems to be making a connection before I can reconfigure the RxStompService to have the CSRF in the headers.
CSRF Protection with JWTs in Spring Security
Either of the above will work. If you find these complicated, please let me know. I will write a small guide covering these approaches. I figured it out. For anyone else who finds this thread helpful and is having the same issue. Great, the code looks alright.
In Nginx proxy, increase the timeout. WebSockets may send data after significant gaps. I usually set it to many hours. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
Sign up. New issue.Basic authentication has a certain limitation and it might not fit in to all use cases. We will extend this article to see how to implement a token bases security feature with Spring. We will use Spring Boot and Maven to handle the dependencies.
As we are building the Spring Boot web application, we will use following staters for our application. I am keeping this application simple at the database level, I will use a single table to store user details and token.
There will be no token against user profile till they request application to create one and return this token. This is how the table structure look like:. This is not a production ready table, but the main idea is to store the token for the customer profile and use this token for authentication and authorization. To save and get the token information for customer profile, we need to create a custom repository. This repository is responsible to get customer information based on the token.
Customer service will use our customer repository to get the customer details based on the token or to perform the login.
In this section, we will talk about following classes:. The AuthenticationProvider is responsible to find user based on the authentication token sent by the client in the header. This is how our Spring based token authentication provider looks like:. Our AuthenticationProvider use the CustomerService to find a customer based on the token. The token authentication filter is responsible to get the authentication filter from the header and call the authentication manager for authentication.
This is how the authentication filter looks like:. This is responsible to club everything together. In the next step, we will setup a simple Spring Boot web application to test our workflow. This is the secure controller. It will return user profile for a valid token. This controller is only accessible on passing a valid token:.
The source code for this post is available on the GitHub. Welcome to the Java Development Journal. We love to share our knowledge with our readers and love to build a thriving community. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.
Learn how your comment data is processed. Thanks for the tuto. Why dou you have this line? That is Good catch. I will be updating the code base to remove the tokenParam from the code. Your tuto is very good, but without the import, it is very difficult to follow. I still have nullpointer exception when I call my apis. The full source code of all posts are available on the Github. Here is the link to this post. This is complete working example, please ensure to setup the DB for this example to work.You can use this guide to understand what Spring Security is and how its core features like authentication, authorization or common exploit protection work.
Also, a comprehensive FAQ. Bookmark it and come back later. Sooner or later everyone needs to add security to his project and in the Spring ecosystem you do that with the help of the Spring Security library.
Having survived the subsequent mental breakdown, you might be interested in how all of this works. At its core, Spring Security is really just a bunch of servlet filters that help you add authentication and authorization to your web application. First off, if you are running a typical web application, you need your users to authenticate. That means your application needs to verify if the user is who he claims to be, typically done with a username and password check.
My username is: potus! In simpler applications, authentication might be enough: As soon as a user authenticates, she can access every part of an application.
Codes And Notes
But most applications have the concept of permissions or roles. Imagine: customers who have access to the public-facing frontend of your webshop, and administrators who have access to a separate admin area. Hence, you also need to check the permissions of an authenticated user, i. President, you have the right clearance level. What do they have to do with authentication and authorization? Optimally, the authentication and authorization should be done before a request hits your Controllers.
A SecurityFilter has roughly 4 tasks and a naive and overly-simplified implementation could look like this:. The filter needs to check, after successful authentication, that the user is authorized to access the requested URI. If the request survives all these checks, then the filter can let the request go through to your DispatcherServlet, i. Reality Check: While the above code works compiles, it would sooner or later lead to one monster filter with a ton of code for various authentication and authorization mechanisms.
In the real-world, however, you would split this one filter up into multiple filters, that you then chain together. This concept is called FilterChain and the last method call in your filter above is actually delegating to that very chain:. If you expand that one line into a list, it looks like Spring Security does not just install one filter, instead it installs a whole filter chain consisting of 15!
The order is important, too, starting at the top of that list and going down to the bottom. Not more, not less.
They do all the work. Any other request needs the user to be authenticated firsti. Anyone should be able to access the login page, without having to log in first permitAll; otherwise we would have a Catch!
On top of that, you are also allowing Basic Auth, i. What is important for now, is that THIS configure method is where you specify:.The example code resulting from those tests can be found on GitHub. CSRF Cross-Site Request Forgery protection is important and should be mandatory for all applications with a minimum of concern about web security.
The protection uses a clever trick the Synchronizer Token Pattern to ensure that your requests, the ones that modify stuff on the server-side, are not fakes emitted by a third party.
Now you can see why implementing some sort of protection against those attacks is important, especially if your web application handles sensitive data. If your web client sends a request to the server, how can the server be sure that the request comes from the trusted clientand not from someone else? Well one solution would be to send the identified client a random unique tokenand require the client to send that same token back when sending a request to the server.
Most of the times this unique token is generated once per client session: while the session lasts, the exchanged CSRF token will be the same. But if needed one can generate a new token for each request although this might create issues, as explained in this stack overflow answer. In practice, at the server side, we will let Spring Security generate the tokens for us. In the example code, CSRF configuration happens implicitly!
This has been originally proposed to me by Allan Ditzel. This makes the CSRF token easily accessible to the web client receiving it. Check it out!
I have extended that code so that it now fully handles CSRF tokens from the server. The token last received through a header response is initially stored in a cookie. When the user sends a request to the server, the token is sent with it. On the first run the server responds with a unauthorizedwhich is exactly what we expect.
We therefore redirect the user to a login. Assuming the credentials are right, the user is redirected to the last visited URL which was also stored in that cookie. Back to that index. The index.